Showing posts from 2015

SDN Wars: Cisco ACI vs VMware NSX

In the last few years, with an exponential growth of interest in the SDDC (Software Defined Data Center), many vendors have shown an interest, and some have even managed to engineer a more-or-less decent SDN (Software Defined Networking) solution. Some are an experienced Networking Hardware vendors, while the others are Startups trying to to enter the big markets using this new tendency. Cisco ACI and VMware NSX are the top two SDN solutions according to Gartner, and according to various other entities (Network World, SDxCentral etc.).

If you have doubts regarding the concept of SDN, or a difference between SDN and Network Virtualization, check out my previous posts [Check out the Blog Map]:

Network Virtualization vs SDNShould I go for CCIE or learn SDN?Is SDN really the future?

Why do I consider myself to be the "right" person to analyse and compare these 2 SDN Solutions? Because I've worked a lot with both technologies, and I can be objective because:

I've worked a l…

Cisco ACI: AVS and Hypervisor Integration

At this point I will assume that you already read my previous posts about:
Cisco ACI Fundamentals.
Application Network Profiles, Contracts and Outside World connection.

If you did, then great. We may proceed with the "cool" stuff, such as ACI Virtual Switch and Hypervisor Integration.

AVS (Application Virtual Switch)

AVS (Application Virtual Switch) is the ACI version of Nexus 1000v or a Cisco alternative to a VMware vSphere VDS (Virtual Distributed Switch). If you are not familiar with these - these are virtual Switches, and they "live" on the Hypervisor, such as VMware ESXi (vSwitch), Hyper-V or KVM.

AVS also has VEM (Virtual Ethernet Modules) like the OVS (you may read about the OVS in my OVS introduction for Network Engineers), but instead of the VSM (Virtual Supervisor Module) it has the APIC Controller. It can be used instead of the VDS in the vSphere, or any other Compatible Hypervisor. It uses VLAN or VXLAN encapsulation, so - a pretty standard setup.

What is …

Cisco ACI: Application Network Profiles, Contracts and ACI Connection to the Outside Network

By know you should know the following facts about ACI:

Cisco Nexus 9k Switches make the ACI Fabric, which is the Control and the Data plane of ACI Architecture.The main components of the ACI Architecture are Bridge Domain (BD), EPG (End Point Group) and the Private Network.VXLAN is the encapsulation mechanism that enables ACI remote L2 connectivity.

If you have any doubts about any of the "facts" on the list, you should read my previous post about the ACI Fundamentals: Components.

N9k can run in one of the two Operational Modes:
-NX-OS Mode (by default)
-ACI Mode

There are 3 types of chips in the 9k devices. You should be very careful when buying these switches because depending on the N9k models you buy, you might get only one or two of the possible ASIC chipsets:

T2 ASIC by Broadcom is a default chipset as a Nexus in a standalone mode (NX-OS mode) ALE – APIC Leaf Engine (ALE performs ACI leaf node functions when the Nexus 9500 switch is deployed as a leaf node in an ACI infr…

Cisco ACI Fundamentals: ACI Components

Before we get deeper into the ACI (Application Centric Infrastructure) as the Cisco's official SDN solution, we need to clarify a few terms that will be used:

SDN is a concept that introduces the Networks that are configured and defined using the Software. You can read more about the SDN and Network Virtualization in one of my previous posts.APIC (Application Policy Infrastructure Controller) is the SDN controller that Cisco ACI architecture uses as the Management Plane.Spine and Leaf is also known as the ACI Fabric. This architecture was explained in my VMware NSX introduction here. In the ACI world Spine and Leaf are the Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches (N9k) in the ACI mode, and they are the Control and the Data plane of the ACI.VXLAN (Virtual eXtensible LAN) is the encapsulation technology on which all the SDN solutions are based, because it permits users on different subnets, even on remote routed networks, to see each other as if they were on the same L2 Segment. Read more ab…

Can OpenStack Neutron really control the Physical Network?

This is a question I´ve been hearing a lot when we present the OpenStack to a new client, mostly from the guys who control the Networking infrastructure. So, can the OpenStack Neutron module really control and configure the Physical Network? The answer might disappoint you. It depends! One thing is for sure - there is no better way to make a group people put on the Poker Faces, then to try to explain how OpenStack Neutron works to a Networking Operations team.

There are 3 of us doing the technical part of the OpenStack presentation:

OpenStack Architect. Typically this will be a young fella, enthusiastic about stuff, and the impression that he gives away is that he is completely ignoring how Data Center is traditionally defined, and his answer to almost all of the questions is - "OpenStack will control that too!"Virtualization Engineer. Seen as openminded by the traditional Mainframe experts, and completely ignored by the OpenStack guy.Network Engineer (me, in our case). Seen …

Open Virtual Switch (OVS) Deep Dive: How L2 Agent "wires" a new VM

The basics of the OVS (Open Virtual Switch) and OpenStack Neutron module were described in my previous post. Time to get a bit deeper into the OVS.

A Virtual Machine (VM), a part from the CPU and Memory, needs the Connectivity.  L2 Agent (OVS in this case, or an External L2 agent) is used to connect the VM to the physical port. OVS resides on the Hypervisor of each OpenStack Node.

To understand how exactly the L2 Agent Works, and how it provides the VM connectivity to the “outside world”, we first need to get a bit “deeeper” into the Linux-y nature of the OVS, and understand all the Bridge Types, what they are used for and how they interconnect. This might look a bit complicated in the beginning, specially if you come from traditional Networking background.

These are the OVS Bridge Types:

br-int (Integration Bridge): All the VMs use the VIF (Virtual Interfaces) to connect to the Integration (Ethernet Bridge): OVS Ethernet Bridge is the entity that allows us to decide if w…

OpenStack Neutron and OVS (Open Virtual Switch) translated to the Network Engineers language

Introduction to Open Virtual Switch (OVS)

IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is provided by a group of different, interconnected Services. OpenStack is an Operating System that makes the IaaS possible, by controlling the “pools” of Compute, Storage and Networking within a Data Center using the Dashboard (later we´ll discuss some more about what Dashboard really is).

NaaS (Network as a Service) is a part we will mainly focus on. in this post NaaS is what OpenStack brings to Networking. The NaaS is in charge of configuring all the Network Elements (L2, L3 and Network Security) using the APIs (Application Programmable Interfaces). Users use the NaaS as the interface that allows them to add/configure/delete all the Network Elements, such as Routers, Load Balancers and Firewalls.

Neutron is an OpenStack module in charge of Networking. Neutron works using its Plug-ins. A Neutron Plug-in is used for different external mechanism, such as:

Open vSwitch (OVS), or external L2 Agents.SDN Controllers…

[Integrate NSX with PaloAlto] Solve OVF Import Certificate problem using the OVFTool

In my next post I'll be focusing on the NSX and Palo Alto integration, and all the improvements this brings to the Micro Segmentation. For now, lets just focus on importing the Palo Alto Virtual FW VM (NSX Version) to the existing vSphere environment.
VMware Environment Details:
ESXi 6.0 on a Physical Host + 5 Nested ESXi 6 (deployed in my Demo Center, as explained here) vSphere 6.0 Managing Compute and Management Clusters NSX Vestion 6.2 Palo Alto 7.0.1, Model PAN-PA-VM-1000-HV-E60 (Features: Threat Prevention, BrightCloud, URL Filtering, PAN-DB URL Filtering, GlobalProtect Gateway, GlobalProtect Portal, PA-VM, Premium Support, WildFire License).
IMPORTANT: You will need to be a Palo Alto partner, as their permission is required in order to download their products.
What is OVFTool, and why did I need it?
OVFTool is a Multi-use VMware tool for various OVA/OVF files operations using the Command Line. I found it really handy in this occasion, while trying to deploy the Palo Alto NSX Ver…

VMware NSX Home Lab

The required Physical InfrastructureTo prepare for the VCIX-NV Exam, the ideal environment to practice is similar to the one we may find on the Hands-on-Labs:
We are particularly interested in the following 4 HoL-s: HOL-SDC-1403 - VMware NSX IntroductionHOL-SDC-1425 - VMware NSX AdvancedHOL-SDC-1603 - VMware NSX IntroductionHOL-SDC-1625 - VMware NSX Advanced

They all have one thing in common: There are 5 Physical Hosts (ESXi-s) distributed into 3 Logical Clusters: -Compute Cluster A (2 hosts) -Compute Cluster B (1 host) -Compute Cluster C (2 hosts)
In the ideal case, you would have 5 Physical Servers to install the native ESXi, and a Physical Switch. Since the majority of us do not have an infrastructure like this just lying around, we need to do an alternative approach: Use 1 Physical Server (needs to be packed with RAM, Memory and CPU), and build the Nested ESXi-s to simulate the target environment.
Before you even start thinking about buil…